Sand Hill Indian History

Ike's World
Before the Mayflower
The Cherokees Demise
The Richardson-Revey Union
Getting About
Society and Culture
Cherokee Indian Book
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             Chapter 3  The Cherokees’ Demise


A 1718 map of Cheraqui (Cherokee) towns in the south shows what the Europeans found traveling through the area. In 1800 most Indians in North America had never seen a white European. However, along the coasts Indians had been trading since the 1300s with fishing vessels from Scandinavia and England. Cherokee ancestors were allied with the French, as a result of lucrative pacts, agreements and better treaties.

 Overhill town groups, Middle, Keowee, Outtowns and Lowertowns villages in the southeast traded for the best deal, for supplies, guns and ammunition, but eventually lost most of their lands to the English. In 1721 the Cherokees signed treaties with the English governor of South Carolina by smoking a peace pipe and receiving presents for thirty-seven tribal delegates. In 1730 six Indians were transported to England to make a treaty with King George. By 1755 Indian lands were confiscated in South Carolina. By 1756 England declared war with France, which became known as the French and Indian War. The majority of the Cherokees supported the French, thinking this the only way to get their lands returned.


By 1760 the Cherokees were ordered to kill any French settlers. In 1761 another Treaty of Charleston tried to suppress the simmering problems of setter land acquisition. In 1762 three Cherokee chiefs sail to England to meet with the King to resolve land issues. Although they died in England, the Proclamation of 1763 declared no English settlements were allowed west of the Allegheny Mountains, which relegated the Americans to the Eastern seaboard. However, in 1768 a treaty purchased land in South Carolina for settlers. In 1772 a treaty was signed to settle the Virginia state boundaries and in 1775 England offered a bounty for American scalps. Reduced land acquisition and confinement of settlements were major causes of the Revolution in 1776 against England.


Twelve years before Ike was born President Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and Captain William Clark on a two year exploration of the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, to map rivers, research plants and animals, evaluate navigable rivers and fertile farm lands, build rapport with the Indian tribes in the west.  A captured Indian girl named Sagajawea, traveling with her French-speaking husband, was able to translate native conversations into French, which her husband then translated into English for Lewis and Clark. Lewis and Clark honored Sagajawea for her interpersonal skills and success of the two thousand mile journey. 


The United States that Ike was born into was growing steadily with the addition of new states and territories. The population in NJ grew from 278,000 people in 1820 to 1,884,000 by 1900, a five hundred-seventy percent increase. In 1820 only three percent of the population was classified as Urban. In 1826 Ike’s parents, Rebecca and Joseph Richardson, bought property near South Street in Eatontown village, near several other Revey and Richardson families. Richardson Avenue, Eatontown, still connects to South Street.

By 1900 seventy-one percent of NJ population was classified as Urban. By 2000 NJ population was over 8,400,000 and classified as ninety percent urban. The population of the United States at the time Ike was born was about 9 million. Ike and the Sand Hill Indians prospered throughout eight decades of his life in Monmouth County, New Jersey, due to commercial growth in the resort areas. Ike flourished in Monmouth County during the time when New Jersey enslaved Africans.


In 1790 there were 1596 slaves in Monmouth County out of a black population of 1949. Statewide 10,800 slaves were recorded in 1790. Abolitionists forced New Jersey to outlawed slavery in 1804 and most states followed suit by 1808. Each decade in Monmouth demonstrated a steady decrease in slave numbers until 1840. By 1850 there were 75 slaves recorded in Monmouth County and by 1860 there were none.

New York counted 15,000 slaves, while Washington, DC counted 5393. 


Slave trade continued for another fifty years as slavery was still permitted in Florida, Cuba, New Orleans and other areas under Spanish or French control. During Ike’s lifetime three out of four Presidents were slaveholders, half the vice-presidents, fourteen of the twenty-six senate presidents, half the Speakers of the House, and two-thirds of the office holders up to President Lincoln had been slaveholders.


The most prosperous state in 1818 was Virginia with 974,000 people, while New York was the second largest state with 94,000 people. Philadelphia listed 92,000 inhabitants, Baltimore 46,000, Boston 33,000, Charleston 27,000, New Orleans 17,000, Salem had 12,000 and Providence had 10,000.

Sand Hill Indian History * PO Box 444 * Lincroft * NJ * 07738 * 732-747-5709